Sunday, February 17, 2013

Crocker Range Park

Crocker Range Park was established in 1984, although the area had previously been under protection as a forest reserve. It covers the north-south Crocker Range, of 1200-1800 meter mountains in Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo, which separate the western coastal plain with the rest of the state. The boundaries of the park have been surveyed, but no facilities exist at present for visitors.
The park covers 1,399 km², making it the largest park in Sabah. The park consists of both hill and montane forest, with many species of flora and fauna endemic to Borneo. Maintenance of this forest cover is essential to ensuring a pure water supply for many of the towns and communities in Sabah.
The park contains at least five species of primates, such as the orang-utan, gibbons and the furry tarsier with its enormous round eyes, and extremely sociable long-tailed macaques. The Padas River bisects the range between Beaufort and Tenom.
Crocker Range Park is administered by Sabah Parks.


Tabin Wildlife Reserve

Tabin Wildlife Refuge is a nature preserve in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It was created in 1984 to preserve Sabah’s disappearing wild animals. Occupying a large part of the peninsula forming the northern headland of Darvel Bay, it is located 48 kilometers east of Lahad Datu.
Tabin Wildlife Reserve (TWR or Tabin) comprises a rectangular area of approximately 122,539 ha. in the centre of the Dent Peninsula, north-east of Lahad Datu town, south of the lower reaches of the Segama River and north of the Silabukan Protection Forest Reserve. It can be reached via sealed and gravel roads from Lahad Datu in about 40 minutes. The reserve is covered with lowland dipterocarp forest.


Tabin has been declared a Wildlife Reserve primarily on account of the large number of animals inhabiting its forests, some of which are highly endangered. The three largest mammals of Sabah – the Borneo Elephant, Sumatran Rhinoceros and Tembadau (Bos javanicus), are all found within the reserve. The elephant population has been estimated to 120-300 animals in 1993. Other ungulate species include Sambar, Muntjac and Mouse Deer. In addition seven of Sabah´s eight primate species are present, among them Orang Utan and Proboscis Monkey. However, these two species occur in relatively low numbers in the reserve. The biggest predator in the reserve is the Sunda Clouded Leopard. There are also several other smaller carnivores in the reseve.[1] Of bird species, 42 families representing 220 species have been recorded.


The land belongs to the people of Sabah. It is under government ownership and has Reserve status. The Sabah Wildlife Department is the custodian of the animals in the reserve. The Sabah Forestry Department is responsible for the trees in Tabin. In 1998, the Malaysian government privatized ecotourism programmes for Tabin and over the last few years increasing numbers of tourists have been coming to the reserve. Among activities permitted in the reserve are jungle trekking, wildlife viewing, photography and filming. Natural mud volcanoes are an important natural attraction for wildlife seeking salt, and these have become a bonus for visitors coming to see wild animals.


Tawau Hills National Park

Tawau Hills Park, was established in 1979, primarily as a protection for the water catchment area of Tawau town, in Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. It is located 24 kilometers from Tawau, and comprises 279.72 km² of lowland dipterocarp rainforest, surrounded by oil palm and cacao plantations. The park offers picnic areas, camping sites, and chalets. The Park contains rugged volcanic landscapes including a hot spring and spectacular waterfalls. The highest point in the park is Gunung Magdalena (1310 m). It is administered by the Sabah Parks.

Friday, February 8, 2013

Origins of Liquid Paper

Liquid Paper is a brand of the Newell Rubbermaid company that sells correction fluid, correction pen and correction tape. Mainly used to correct typewriting in the past, correction products now mostly cover handwriting mistakes.

Brand history

In 1951, Bette Nesmith Graham invented the first correction fluid in her kitchen. Working as a typist, she used to make many mistakes and always strived for a way to correct them. Starting on a basis of tempera paint she mixed with a common kitchen blender, she called the outcome fluid Mistake Out and started to provide her co-workers with small green bottles on which the brand's name was displayed.
By 1956, Graham founded the Mistake Out Company and continued working from her kitchen nights and weekends to produce small batches of correction bottles. She was fired from her typist job after she made a mistake that she did not manage to correct. She had typed in her company name instead of the bank's. After this stroke of bad luck, she decided to devote her time to her new company.[1]
The inventor offered the product to IBM, which declined the offer. She sold the product from her house for 17 years; the name was changed to Liquid Paper shortly after. By 1968, the product was profitable, and in 1979 the Liquid Paper Corporation was sold to the Gillette Corporation for $47.5 million with royalties.
In 2000, Liquid Paper was acquired by Newell Rubbermaid. In some regions of the world, Liquid Paper is now endorsed by Papermate, a widely known writing instruments brand (also owned by Newell Rubbermaid).
Graham's son Mike Nesmith, guitarist/singer in the popular 1960s pop band The Monkees, was the primary heir to her fortune upon her death in 1980.


Current MSDSs list Liquid Paper as containing titanium dioxide, solvent naphtha, mineral spirits, resins, dispersant, and fragrances.[2]
Liquid Paper came under scrutiny in the 1980s, due to concerns over recreational sniffing of the product. The organic solvent 1,1,1-trichloroethane was used as a thinner in the product.[3] Liquid Paper using this thinner was thought to be toxic and a carcinogen, but later studies have shown that although the thinner used was toxic there was no evidence of carcinogenicity.[4] There were a number of studies linking fatalities[5][6] to the trichloroethane contained in correction fluids, including Liquid Paper.
In 1989, Gillette reformulated Liquid Paper such that it did not use trichloroethane. This was done in response to a complaint under California Proposition 65.[7][8]


Monday, February 4, 2013

Taman Negara Kinabalu

Taman Kinabalu merupakan sebuah taman negara yang telah diwartakan pada 2002, dan terletak di negeri Sabah, Malaysia di bahagian utara pulau Borneo. Taman Kinabalu dihiasi oleh dengan Gunung Kinabalu yang tersergam dengan ketinggian 4,095 meter, yang merupakan antara gunung tertinggi di Asia Tenggara.
Taman Kinabalu merupakan kawasan yang mempunyai ekologi mega dengan kepelbagaian habitat dari kawasan rendah tropika, kawasan hutan hujan tropika, sehingga kawasan hutan gunung tropika, hutan separa alpine, dan sehingga tumbuhan renek pada kearas tinggi. Ia telah dikelaskan sebagai Pusat Kepelbagaian Tumbuhan Asia Tenggara dan amat kaya dengan contoh tumbuhan flora dari Himalaya, China, Australia, Malaysia termasuk tumbuhan tropika sejagat.

Friday, February 1, 2013

Suku Kaum Rungus

Rungus merupakan salah satu dari suku kaum di Sabah dan juga merupakan salah satu penduduk asli kepulauan Borneo. Rungus biasanya dikenali sebagai Dayak Dusun, Dayak Laut,Momogun, Momogun Rungus, Momogun Laut, Dusun Laut atau Rungus. "Rungus" berasal dari perkataan Rungsud iaitu nenek moyang suku kaum Rungus yang berhijrah dari kawasan Nunuk Ragang ke pesisiran pantai di Semenanjung Kudat, Teluk Marudu, Pitas, Beluran dan Telupid. [1]

Aki Rungsud merupakan seorang tokoh Momogun Laut yang membuka kawasan Kudat-Bandau pada zaman dahulu. Istilah penggunaan nama [Momogun] [2]adalah merujuk kepada nama bangsa suku kaum Rungus sendiri. Menurut legenda Momogun Rungus, Aki Rungsud adalah tokoh yang membuka kawasan Bandau-Kudat sebagai kawasan perdagangan barter yang terbesar di rantau Semenanjung Berungus dan Teluk Bandau Borneo pada zaman dahulu. Teluk Bandau merupakan sebuah pusat perdagangan Momogun Rungus Kuno. Barangan yang didagangkan di teluk Bandau ialah ubi kayu, pisang, jagung, labu, hasil-hasil hutan, kain tenunan Rungus dan sebagainya. Sumber lisan pula menyebutkan bahawa istilah RUNGUS bagi etnik Rungus di Kudat berasal daripada perkataan Bahasa Bajau dan Bahasa Suluk iaitu dari kata "UNGUS" yang ertinya dalam bahasa Malaysia adalah PASIR. Orang-orang Bajau dan Suluk di daerah Kudat telah membawa orang-orang TAGBANUA atau IRAAN atau IDAAN iaitu Suku Orang Bukit dari Kepulauan Palawan di Filipina.Orang-orang IRAAN atau orang bukit ini mempunyai bau badan seakan-akan pasir hamis di pantai. Mereka telah dibawa ke kawasan Kudat dan akhirnya dikenali sebagai IRAAN RUNGUS. Kata Rungus bererti BERBAU SEPERTI PASIR YANG HAMISJusteru inilah suku kaum Rungus hanya terdapat di daerah Kudat dan terlalu sedikit bilangannya. Pada hari ini,secara politiknya semua suku-suku Momogun di Sabah dihimpunkan dalam kategori Kaum Kadazandusun-Murut (KDM). Rungus merupakan salah satu sub kumpulan yang tergolong dalam kelompok kaum Kaum Kadazan-Dusun. Berdasarkan penelitian seni arkitektur dan bahasa suku kaum Momogun Rungus, ia dengan jelas menunjukkan bahawa masyarakat Momogun Rungus mempunyai kesamaan dengan sistem kebudayaan Dayak. Dayak adalah istilah khusus bagi penduduk Asli di Kepulauan Borneo.

Masyarakat Momogun Rungus berdagang dengan pihak luar seperti Sulu dan Brunei untuk mendapatkan barangan logam, barangan tembaga cina, tembikar cina, kain cina dan sebagainya. Momogun Rungus mempunyai adat berdagang sendiri yang mana para pedagang dari luar tidak dibenarkan menggali tanah lebih dari "Duvo Lzangod" iaitu dua kaki. Para pedagang luar tidak boleh sama sekali menebang hutan atau membuka sesebuah kawasan sama ada untuk penternakan atau pun membuka ladang. Ini kerana perbuatan ini melanggar hukum-hakam agama [Labus][3] (disebut Lzabvus) bangsa Momogun Rungus. Sistem kesukuan Momogun Rungus ini merupakan satu sistem yang berdaulat pada zaman itu. Hal ini kerana secara tradisinya Semenanjung Kudat dan Teluk Bandau telah berkurun lamanya dipertahankan oleh suku kaum Momogun Rungus.

Dengan meninjau nama-nama pesisir pantai di sekeliling Semenanjung Berungus ini, dapat dibuktikan bahawa ia mempunyai sejarah tersendiri bagaimana sesuatu perkampungan pesisir pantai itu mendapat nama. Nama-nama pesisir pantai sekitar Kudat seperti Andarason, Vingolzon, Torongkungan, Bvadarag, Andab, Sampang Mangazou, Golzom, Milzobong, Pantai dan lain-lain lagi adalah merujuk kepada sejarah-sejarah ketika zaman perang di mana komuniti Momogun Rungus mempertahankan perkampungan mereka pada ketika itu.

Momogun Rungus yang mendiami kawasan Kudat, Kota Marudu dan Pitas adalah terdiri daripada beberapa sub suku iaitu:
  • Rungus Kirangavan
  • Rungus Pilzapazan
  • Rungus Gandahon
  • Rungus Gonsomon
  • Rungus Nulzuw
  • Rungus Tupak atau Rungus Melobong

Momogun Rungus di luar daerah seperti yang disebutkan diatas adalah dikenali sebagai:
  • Rungus Piromitan
  • Rungus Tindal-Sondot

Monday, January 28, 2013

Legend of Monsopiad

Legends tell that many centuries ago, a lady named Kizabon was pregnant. She lived in a house with her husband, Dunggou. On the roof of their house, a sacred Bugang bird made its nest and stayed there throughout Kizabon's pregnancy.
When the child was about to be born, the Bugang birds hatched as well. The father of the child took the sign as a good omen and that this was a sign that his newborn son would have special powers. He named his son Monsopiad. The father paid special care to the birds as well, and whenever his son took a bath, Dunggou would take the young birds down from their nest to have a bath with his son. When he was done, he later returned them to the safety of their nest. This was done diligently until the birds were strong enough to leave the nest.
The young boy grew up in the village Kuai, where his maternal grandfather was its headman. However, it was often plundered and attacked by robbers, and due to the lack of warriors in the village, the villagers had to retreat and hide while the robbers ransacked their homes.
Monsopiad, however, was given special training and he turned out to be an excellent fighter and grew up to become a warrior. Well-equipped, he vowed to hunt down and fight off the warriors that had terrorized his village for so long. He will bring back their heads as trophies, he claimed, and hang them from the roof of his house.
All he wanted in return was a warrior's welcome, where his success will be heralded by the blowing of bamboo trumpets. In order to prove that he really did as promised, three boys went with him as witnesses.
Just as he promised, Monsopiad's journey to rid his village of the robbers was successful and upon coming home, he was given a hero's welcome. He was so honoured by the welcome that he proclaimed that he will destroy all of his village's enemies.
Over the years, he soon attained a reputation that no one challenged him. However, Monsopiad's murderous urges disturbed him and he simply could not stop himself from beheading more people. Very soon, he started provoking other men into fighting him so that he can behead them.
With his changed attitude, all the villagers and his friends became afraid of him. Left with no choice, the village got a group of brave warriors together and they plan to eliminate Monsopiad. Much as they respected Monospiad for his heroic deeds, yet they had no choice for he had slowly turned into a threat.
One night as planned, the warriors moved in for the kill as Monsopiad was resting in his house. As they attacked him, he fought back fiercely but realized that he had lost his special powers that were bestowed upon him by the Bugang bird. He was killed afterwards.
Despite his downfall, the villagers still loved Monsopiad for all that he had done for them. All in all, he collected 42 heads. In his memory, a monument was erected and the village was renamed after him.
  • A group of tourist visiting the "House of Skulls" in Monsopiad Cultural Village, Penampang.
  • Monsopiad's Skulls
  • Close-up of Monsopiad's Skulls